Blender 3D: Noob to Pro/Mountains Out Of Molehills
|Applicable Blender version: 2.49.|
Now that we've created our simple person, it's time to give him somewhere to go. In this tutorial we'll create a mountain range using a few simple, and handy tools.
Creating a simple plane
First we need a clean area to work with.
- Start off with a new project, using File → New, or hit CTRL+N KEY. If you have a default cube or plane just delete them now (select them with RMB and press X KEY).
Our first step is to create a large plane that we'll use for the ground and grow our mountains out of.
- Press on NUM7 to enter top view. This way our plane will be lying flat when we create it.
- Press SHIFT+C. This sets the 3D cursor to (0,0,0) which will be the center of the plane we will add.(or use - SHIFT+S -> cursor to center)
- (Note: If you are zoomed in or out, pressing SHIFT+C will also reset the zoom view to its default setting)
- Now add the plane with SHIFT+A → Add → Mesh → Plane. This will be our canvas. (2.58 - SHIFT+A -> Mesh -> Plane)
- Change to Edit mode (TAB changes between edit and object mode)
- Scale the plane up by about 15. First put the mouse close to the center of the plane and press SKEY and drag the cursor away and watch the numbers in the bottom left of the 3D Window. Hold CTRL to increment by 0.1 for a more precise measurement. Alternatively, to enter the exact amount yourself press SKEY, then simply type 15 and hit ENTER.
- Now we need to add some vertices to work with. In the buttons window, make sure we have the Editing buttons open (or hit F9 in the buttons windows to switch there).
- Under Mesh Tools hit the Subdivide button 4 times. Alternatively, in the 3D View window you can press WKEY and select Subdivide. (2.58 - By default the Mesh Tools are on the left hand side.) You can also just hit ENTER, because Subdivide is the first option under WKEY.
Note: As in many of the next tutorials, you may choose to add a grid instead of adding a plane and then subdividing it to have vertices throughout the plane. Adding a grid has the added advantage of allowing you to select the number of vertices along the x and y axes (the two edges) of the grid at the instant of creating the grid, so there is no need to make further subdivisions.
Now that we have the ground, it's time to start growing our mountains.
- Make sure you have nothing selected (AKEY).
- Select a random vertex with RMB. I usually start at the one that is 4 down from the top and 4 in from the left (the 4th vertex if you count the edges).
- Change to the side view with NUM3.
- Press O to change to proportional edit mode or use the button which shows a grey ring on the header of the 3D View. The button will change its color to orange (blue in 2.61). You can also use SPACE → Transform→Proportional Edit (2.58 and 2.61 - By default this button is located just below the 3D view.)
- Once you've turned proportional edit mode on, another button appears to its right, the falloff button. Select Smooth Falloff here. Alternatively you can use the menu on the header of the 3D View (Mesh → Proportional Falloff → Smooth) or, using SHIFT + OKEY will switch between Sharp and Smooth Falloff (in versions prior to 2.37) or cycle through all 6 falloff types (in versions 2.37 and up) while using the Proportional editing tool.
- Press G to grab the vertex. We should now have a circle surrounding the vertex, this is our radius of influence. Basically any vertices inside this circle will be affected by any changes to the vertex itself.
Noob Note: If you're having trouble seeing or changing the radius of influence, try saving your scene and restarting Blender.
- Use the Mouse Wheel or PAGE_UPKEY and PAGE_DOWNKEY to adjust the radius of influence to include just over 2 vertices on each side of our selected vertex. (Depending on your version of Blender, you may need to use ALT + NUM+/ PAGE_UPKEY and ALT + NUM-/ PAGE_DOWNKEY and may need to hold down the LMB while using the Mouse Wheel to adjust the radius of the influence.On Mac, hold the "fnKey" down and hit "page-up" or "page-down"). In 2.41 you must 'grab' the vertex first - only then can you alter the sphere of influence (in my version, 2.42a, the 3D cursor had to be snapped to the selection before the wheel appeared).
Noob Note: To change the radius on a Macbook press "fn"+ up/down. OSX uses function + arrow keys as replacements for "home", "end", "page up" and "page down" keys.
- Move the vertex up about 8 units on the Z-Axis. Do this by dragging the cursor up a little, and press the MMB; this should restrain the movements along the Z-axis. Now use CTRL to move it precisely. Alternatively you can use ZKEY to restrain movements to the Z-Axis and type 8 and hit ENTER. In older versions of Blender you may need to hit the NKEY before typing the number 8.
Congratulations, we just created our first mountain. Now it's time to see what other things we can accomplish with the proportional editing tool.
Peaks vs. hills
The 2.37 and onward releases offer at least 6 types and 2 modes of proportional editing. The previous release only has 2 of these types: Smooth and Sharp Falloff. We'll take a look at the difference between these two now.
- Change to top view again with NUM7. You'll notice that now your "mountain" looks like a few differently shaded squares in the grid; you're looking down on shaded tiles, but in the Z axis, they're all still perfectly aligned with the original grid.
- Select another vertex away from the first. Let's say 4 from the bottom 4 from the right (counting the vertices on the edges).
- Change back to the side view with NUM3
- Select Sharp Falloff from the menu on the bar of the 3D View. Alternatively, using SHIFT+OKEY will switch from one to the next of the 6 proportional editing modes while using the Proportional editing tool.
- As before, move the vertex up 8 units on the Z-Axis (Note: The radius of influence will still be the same size as when we last used it).
- Type 8 and hit ENTER
Now we can see the differences between the sharp and smooth falloff. The same number of vertices are affected in both cases; only the degree to which they are affected is different.
The different proportional editing modes can be selected from the box immediately to the left of the proportional editing type box. The mode box contains three options: Off, On, and Connected. "Off" means that proportional editing will not be used. "Connected" means that only vertices linked to the selected vertices will be affected by the radius of influence. "On" means that all vertices will be affected.
Shaping the world
Now that we've created a couple of Mountains, it's time to see how we can use proportional editing to shape them.
- First make sure we're in side view (NUM3).
- Then on the smooth falloff mountain, the first one we created, select the vertex that is immediately down and left from the topmost point.
- Press RKEY to rotate, scroll the MMB to change effective radius so it includes other points. Your screen should look like the photo to the right.
You can see the size of the proportional editing circle, and that there is only one vertex on the mountainside selected.
- Next hold CTRL and rotate everything by -90. Alternatively, use RKEY, NKEY, and type -90 and press ENTER. Your mountain should now look like this:
Noob note: be careful about the range of affected vertices. If the range is too small, then rotating will affect just the selected vertex. If the range is too large, it will rotate everything together. You can adjust the range by using the scroll wheel on the mouse.
Notice that the vertex itself did not move; since it is at the center of the circle it had no effect. The adjoining vertexes within the edit circle were rotated around it in decreasing amounts the further from the center they are. Try doing it again with a larger proportional editing circle. Feel free to play around with scaling or rotating from different view points (don't forget that you can also use GKEY to move vertecies vertically or horizontally).
Try viewing your world from top view while rotating with a large effective radius. You will see the nearby vertexes move close to the full amount while vertexes further away move less.
Smoothing things out
Now that we have a couple of budding mountains, you probably think they look kind of choppy. Sure they would be good if we were making an 8-bit console game, but we're working with 3D here, we want things to look sharper (or maybe smoother) than that. There are a couple of approaches to this. The first is to use more vertices when we create our plane. And I won't lie, it works. But it's also a HUGE resource hog. It would take your home computer hours of work just to keep things updated, let alone run it. So instead, we fake it. The easiest way to do this is to turn on SubSurfaces (we saw this in Detailing Your Simple Person 1.) For our purposes, let's set the subdivision (Levels) to 2. Also, ensure our SubSurf algorithm is set to Catmull-Clark (this is the default setting).
Now, you'll notice that with SubSurf on, we lose a lot of hard edges that we had, essentially we have no sharp corners any more. I don't know about you, but to me that doesn't make for a very interesting mountain range. So to restore our corners, we are going to use Weighted Creases for Subsurfs.
- First turn off proportional editing with the OKEY , and ensure we're in side view with NUM3
- Noob note: That means, the letter O key, not the zero key. Also, NUM3 means "3 on the numeric keypad," not on the top row of the keyboard.
- Next, while still in edit mode, change to Edge Select mode with CTRL+TAB and select Edges. Alternatively press Edge Select Mode button at the bottom of the object window.
- Under the Edit buttons under Mesh Tools 1 (Mesh Tools More in versions 2.46 and later) ensure that Draw Creases is selected (2.58 - By default on the left hand side you'll find the tab "Mesh Options" and a dropdown called Edge Select Mode. Here you'll find Tag Crease). (Mesh Tools 1 may be off the screen, if so, use the scroll wheel when over the Edit Panel to reveal it. Alternatively, you can pan the buttons window by dragging with the MMB; or you can collapse some of the panels by clicking the arrow next to their names.)
- Noob note: "Mesh Tools 1" (also known as "Mesh Tools More" in 249.2) is a separate panel from "Mesh Tools" and from "Mesh". By moving the mouse cursor over the buttons window (remember this 'activates' windows) and using the mouse wheel, you will cause the tabs to scroll from side to side, revealing some you couldn't see before. If the one you need still isn't there you should check to make sure you're still in edit mode, or make sure it isn't 'minimized' which is done by clicking the little white arrow at the top left of the tab.
- On our Sharp Falloff mountain, the second one we did, select the two edges on the right. (see image below)
- Press SHIFT+EKEY or SPACE → Edit → Edges → Crease SubSurf, then move the mouse away from the edge until the edge Crease reads 1.000 in the 3D viewport header. If moving the cursor there seems to be impossible, just hit 1 and enter.
As you move the cursor away from the edge you will notice two things. The first is that the edge becomes thicker as we move from it; this is showing how much of a crease we have (with Draw Creases turned on). The second is that you will notice the subsurfed mesh moving closer to the edge as the sharpness increases.
Press CTRL+TAB and select vertices. Then go into front view NUM1. Select the second vertex from the top in the centre of our Sharp Falloff mountain, then go into side view NUM3. Push GKEY and drag the vertex inwards, not too far or your mountain will come out of itself on the other side. Just bring it in enough to make a small indent.
Then grab the top vertex and pull it down a small amount. You will notice that there is a small "crunch" in your mountain.
Don't forget to select all, press WKey and hit the set smooth button to smooth everything out.
OK, so your mountains are starting to shape up. But they still look a bit too neat. You could spend time moving each individual vertex but the chances are your model will still lack the natural feel. What we need is some chaos. Thankfully this is quite easy to accomplish. Firstly select the vertices that make up your mountains, all of them and a few around the base (box and circle select will make this easier). Select a few vertices between the mountains too. Next we use something called fractals. Fractals are chaotically (i.e. randomly) generated variables. In short you can use these variables to give your mountains a "wobbly" look.
Fractals are located in the Mesh Tools section of your edit buttons (next to Noise, Hash and Xsort) or in the options for subdividing labeled Fractal under smoothness (Access it through the specials menu (WKEY) and selecting subdivide 2.61) Click it and you'll be asked for a value. This value is the strength of the fractal. 1 is very low and will barely change your model. 100 is very high and will twist your models into very odd shapes indeed. Have a play with different values until you find one that you like. Around about 15-30 should do it. Hit OK and presto, your mountains have been transformed from clinical neatness, to lumpy chaos.
- If you make too many fractals, your computer will slow down. However, the more fractal you add, the more bumpy and realistic it looks!
Noob Note: Repeatedly using the fractal tool seems to rapidly multiply the amount of vertices on your canvas. I suggest using the tool once, and if the result isn't satisfying, undo the result (CTRL + Z) and try it again with a different fractal strength. Even after undo, your selected vertices remain selected.
Noob Note #2: If you have a new enough version of Blender (2.49 and up definitely has it, not sure about lower versions), there is a setting called Random in the Proportional Editing settings. Using this with a high radius may give a desired result for you without adding more mesh.
Adding your guy with the hat
If you changed to a new layer-- press (SHIFT) select the layer with your guy on it or (SHIFT + 1). This will display both layers. If you would like to move the landscape from the second layer to the first then with the landscape selected, press (M), and select the layer(s) you would like it on. note- make sure you're in object mode. If you started a new project-- To insert your guy with a hat, you can simply go to file > append or link(shift+F1).
- Then select the file from the previous tutorial.
- You will then see a list of objects you can insert or ‘append’.
- First go into the 'Object' folder. Unless you renamed him/her, your person will probably be named “cube.” Select it.
- Make sure that 'Append' button is pressed; otherwise you will not be able to scale or translate, or edit your model at all. (The 'Link' button will link a copy of your object into the current scene, and will update any changes when you reload the file. Unfortunately, this includes location and size, so we will not use it right now.)
- Press 'Load Library' to place your guy into the mountain scene. Please note, the Load Library button is top right. Confusingly, there is some text bottom left that says Load Library as well, but isn't clickable.
- Repeat the process to get the hat (probably named “circle”). To reset the parental relationship, see the instructions at the end of the Putting Hat on Person tutorial. To scale them to the appropriate size, go to object mode by pressing TAB (unless of course you are already there). Select the object you want to resize, then press the SKEY and use the cursor to scale as you see fit. To undo any mistakes, use CTRL+Z.
Noob Note: To import the file once you have the list select the item, i.e. cube, and in the bottom right select "Active Layer" that will append it to your current proj when you click "Load Library" your work should be visible now.
Noob Note: Multiple items may be appended simultaneously. For instance: both 'cube' and 'circle' objects can be appended at the same time by highlighting both object names within the file browser by means of a RMB Click. RMB on object again to deselect.