Biblical Studies/New Testament Commentaries/1 Corinthians/Chapter 7

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1 Corinthians 7:1-40 (New International Version)
Marriage

1Now for the matters you wrote about: It is good for a man not to marry. 2But since there is so much immorality, each man should have his own wife, and each woman her own husband. 3The husband should fulfill his marital duty to his wife, and likewise the wife to her husband. 4The wife's body does not belong to her alone but also to her husband. In the same way, the husband's body does not belong to him alone but also to his wife. 5Do not deprive each other except by mutual consent and for a time, so that you may devote yourselves to prayer. Then come together again so that Satan will not tempt you because of your lack of self-control. 6I say this as a concession, not as a command. 7I wish that all men were as I am. But each man has his own gift from God; one has this gift, another has that.

8Now to the unmarried and the widows I say: It is good for them to stay unmarried, as I am. 9But if they cannot control themselves, they should marry, for it is better to marry than to burn with passion.

10To the married I give this command (not I, but the Lord): A wife must not separate from her husband. 11But if she does, she must remain unmarried or else be reconciled to her husband. And a husband must not divorce his wife.

12To the rest I say this (I, not the Lord): If any brother has a wife who is not a believer and she is willing to live with him, he must not divorce her. 13And if a woman has a husband who is not a believer and he is willing to live with her, she must not divorce him. 14For the unbelieving husband has been sanctified through his wife, and the unbelieving wife has been sanctified through her believing husband. Otherwise your children would be unclean, but as it is, they are holy.

15But if the unbeliever leaves, let him do so. A believing man or woman is not bound in such circumstances; God has called us to live in peace. 16How do you know, wife, whether you will save your husband? Or, how do you know, husband, whether you will save your wife?

17Nevertheless, each one should retain the place in life that the Lord assigned to him and to which God has called him. This is the rule I lay down in all the churches. 18Was a man already circumcised when he was called? He should not become uncircumcised. Was a man uncircumcised when he was called? He should not be circumcised. 19Circumcision is nothing and uncircumcision is nothing. Keeping God's commands is what counts. 20Each one should remain in the situation which he was in when God called him. 21Were you a slave when you were called? Don't let it trouble you—although if you can gain your freedom, do so. 22For he who was a slave when he was called by the Lord is the Lord's freedman; similarly, he who was a free man when he was called is Christ's slave. 23You were bought at a price; do not become slaves of men. 24Brothers, each man, as responsible to God, should remain in the situation God called him to.

25Now about virgins: I have no command from the Lord, but I give a judgment as one who by the Lord's mercy is trustworthy. 26Because of the present crisis, I think that it is good for you to remain as you are. 27Are you married? Do not seek a divorce. Are you unmarried? Do not look for a wife. 28But if you do marry, you have not sinned; and if a virgin marries, she has not sinned. But those who marry will face many troubles in this life, and I want to spare you this.

29What I mean, brothers, is that the time is short. From now on those who have wives should live as if they had none; 30those who mourn, as if they did not; those who are happy, as if they were not; those who buy something, as if it were not theirs to keep; 31those who use the things of the world, as if not engrossed in them. For this world in its present form is passing away.

32I would like you to be free from concern. An unmarried man is concerned about the Lord's affairs—how he can please the Lord. 33But a married man is concerned about the affairs of this world—how he can please his wife— 34and his interests are divided. An unmarried woman or virgin is concerned about the Lord's affairs: Her aim is to be devoted to the Lord in both body and spirit. But a married woman is concerned about the affairs of this world—how she can please her husband. 35I am saying this for your own good, not to restrict you, but that you may live in a right way in undivided devotion to the Lord.

36If anyone thinks he is acting improperly toward the virgin he is engaged to, and if she is getting along in years and he feels he ought to marry, he should do as he wants. He is not sinning. They should get married. 37But the man who has settled the matter in his own mind, who is under no compulsion but has control over his own will, and who has made up his mind not to marry the virgin—this man also does the right thing. 38So then, he who marries the virgin does right, but he who does not marry her does even better.

39A woman is bound to her husband as long as he lives. But if her husband dies, she is free to marry anyone she wishes, but he must belong to the Lord. 40In my judgment, she is happier if she stays as she is—and I think that I too have the Spirit of God.


1 CORINTHIANS 7 – AN OVERVIEW[edit]

The questions about marriage and sexuality in this chapter are one of many topics that the people of Corinth brought to Paul’s attention in their letters. This is obviously a response to a previous letter that the people of Corinth had written him (7:1). Chapter 7 deals with the idea of Christian Liberty in the area of marital relations. This was an important topic; the Christian concept of marriage was one that needed to be established in the early church. Paul tries to do this throughout chapter 7. Much of what Paul says in the chapter should not be taken universally; rather, it should be understood in light of the background of the Corinthian Church. [1] “It seems certain, at least, that some Christians regarded marriage as an absolute duty. Others considered the marriage state as an inferior moral condition, a weak concession to the flesh. Still others held that by accepting Christ all existing social relationships, including marriage, were dissolved (Erdman, 65).” [2] The Corinthian people were confused about marriage in relation to Christianity. Paul tries to cover this area by telling them about marriage, sex within marriage, celibacy, and other related subjects.

PARAPHRASE[edit]

(v. 1-7) This is an address on the issue of marriage. Since there is so much sexual immorality in the world it is good for people to marry. Married couples should have regular sexual relations. When one abstains it takes away the other's natural right and vice versa. Both the husband and the wife have rights and possession of the other in this area. Only with consent and prayerful attitudes should a couple abstain, but do not let it become an opportunity for sexual temptation to come into play because the human sexual urge is strong. Though marriage is good and a part of God's plan, it is not mandatory. My celibacy is a gift from God, to use as opportunity to serve him, however marriage is also a gift from God, both are good.

(v. 8-9) Those who have never been married or have been widowed should stay that way. However, if they can not control their sexual desires they should seek marriage, for it is better to marry than to burn with lust.

(v. 10-11) I give you this command from the Lord: A wife shall not separate from her husband, if she does, she must stay that way or be reconciled with him again. Also, the husband must not divorce his wife.

(v. 12-14) The Lord commands that if a couple is already married and one becomes a Christian, they should not divorce unless the unbeliever does not want to stay in the marriage. Within the marriage, the one who does not believe participates with their believing spouse in the quality of being consecrated to God’s service in that the children are born holy from their union.

(v. 15-16) The unbeliever is not forced to stay in the marriage after the spouse becomes a Christian. If one were forced to stay there would be no peace in the home, and God has called you to peace. Neither husband nor wife knows if they will be able to save their spouse.

(v. 17-24) You are to live confidently for the Lord in whatever station God has placed you in. No change of marital status that anyone brings about on their own can advance their salvation. Christian Jews should not undo their circumcision and Christian Gentiles should not be forced to be circumcised. Circumcision is no longer an issue, only doing what God commands counts. Each person should remain in the situation that they were in when God called them. If you were called as a slave, do not worry, however if you can gain your freedom, do so. If you were called as a slave you are now the Lord’s freed man from the bondage of sin. You are now free in Christ, do not be slaves of men, your allegiance is in Christ alone. Each man should stay in the situation they were called in, and stay responsible to God.

(v. 25-28) I have no specific direction from the Lord about virgins, but you can trust my counsel. It is good to remain as you are. If you are married, stay married, if you are single, stay single. There is no sin in getting married, whether you are a virgin or not. All I am saying is that marriage is stressful and this is a stressful time, so I am trying to spare you the distress.

(v. 29-31) Time is of the essence, that is what I want to stress. Do not complicate your lives for there is no time to waste. Things such as marriage, grief, and joy need to be kept simple. Deal simply with materialism this world has to offer, for it will soon pass away.

(v. 32-35) I truly want you to be free of complications. The single person has so much more time and energy to focus on the Lord. Marriage involves so many distractions and takes the focus off of the Lord and puts it on the spouse. I am simply trying to make things easier for you, not harder. I want to direct you to a way of life that leave plenty of time and attention for the Lord.

(v. 36-38) If a man has a friend that is a woman, but does not intend to marry because he has chosen the single life, it is not a sin for him to change his mind. However, if the man decides to stat celibate by his own influence and conviction, he should stick to it. Neither marriage nor celibacy is superior or inferior to the other. It is simply because of the times that we are living in that I have reasons for encouraging singleness.

(v. 39-40) A woman must be with her husband as long as he is alive. If he dies she is permitted to marry again. She will want to marry a believer and have the Lord’s blessing. However, you know that in my opinion she should stay single, and I believe the Lord may think so too.

HISTORICAL CONTEXT[edit]

The City of Corinth[edit]

Julius Caesar rebuilt Corinth after it was destroyed by the Romans in 146 B.C., making it a fairly new city. Soon after it became flooded with colonist from everywhere around the Mediterranean basin. "Corinth was located directly south of the Corinthian Gulf, on the Peloponnesian side (southern Greece) of the Isthmus of Corinth. Two harbors accommodated the city's position of control over the isthmus between two seas. Lechaeum served the westward facing the Corinthian gulf, and Cenchreae functioned as the harbor on the eastward facing the Saronic Gulf." [3] There was an isthmus in Corinth, which is a narrow strip of land connecting two larger land areas, that was the reason for much of the city's commerce. Instead of sailing around the peninsula, trading ships would take their loads across the isthmus. This led to a wide variety of people buying and selling in this area. From the slaves to the wealthy, there was something for everyone in Corinth.[4]

Map of Corinth[edit]

600

The Church of Corinth[edit]

When Paul arrived in Corinth there was a very large pagan culture. "The pagans were a religious people with temples and images everywhere, reflecting both their indulgence of the gods of Mount Olympus and their involvement in the rites of the mystery religions." (Reed, 10)[5] Paul gives an account of the lifestyle of these people in Romans 1:29-31, using descriptions such as "wicked" and "inventors of evil". Considering the variety of people in Corinth, it is not surprising that the same kind of variety would be found in the Church that Paul established in Corinth. This is a big reason as to why there were so many problems within the church. Paul's letters to the Corinthians were a way to bring to them a sense of fellowship and steer them away from the idea that Legalism = Salvation.

LITERARY CONTEXT[edit]

Authorship/Purpose of the Letter[edit]

The apostle Paul is generally recognized as the Author of 1 and 2 Corinthians. There is question as to whether or not the material is unedited or if it is as it came from Paul. No matter which of these is the case, Paul was the author. [6] It is a letter written by the apostle Paul, to the people of Corinth, addressing certain issues that have become problems within the church. Some of the main issues addressed throughout the book include: sexual conduct, marriage, food offerings, idolatry, the Eucharist, spiritual gifts, and unbelievers.

Style[edit]

There are four things that need to be brought to attention in regards to how Paul writes.

1. It is most likely that Paul dictated all of his writings rather than writing them himself. An example of this can be found in Romans 16:22 where a man named Tertius claims to have physically written the letter for Paul. This can give a lot of insight into the style of the letter. It is not well thought out or outlined. It is written in the style of a man simply speaking what is on his mind. Paul is not going over the letter to edit parts and make sure everything is perfect. He is doing what he does best, preaching and teaching. There are repeated concepts and random detours throughout. It is his thoughts out loud, which leaves the letter in an unedited, nontraditional style. [7]
2. Paul did not have access to the Old Testament at all times. During this time books were extremely expensive, and Paul was a rather impoverished man. Therefore, it is unlikely that he had a copy of the Old Testament. This is obvious in the fact that he quotes scripture very often but his quotes are rarely verbatim. So, the style of his writings involves a lot of inaccuracy in the sense that many of his references are from memory rather than from the direct source. [8]
3. Paul did not have copies of his own letters. This leaves the present day reader with several incidents throughout Paul's writings that are in confrontation with each other. The styles of his writings therefore, are very different in their content because Paul is unable to compare his past writings with others. [9]
4. There were not any creeds formed in the Church at this time. The great creeds such as the Apostle's Creed, the Nicene Creed, the Westminster Confession of Faith, and the Thirty-nine Articles, were not established until after Paul's writings. Paul's writings were never establishing or pushing dogmatic orthodox. His writings should not be read as if they were trying to fit the theology of the creeds, it is the other way around. The creeds were established to fit Paul's theology. So the style is rather free and unorthodox, which is why so many different churches today try to reinterpret and fit Paul's teachings into their doctrine, instead of questioning whether or not their orthodox is even correct. [10]

Outline[edit]

600

COMMENTARY[edit]

Concerning Married Couples (Vs. 1-7)[edit]

Vs. 1. Now for the matters you wrote about: It is good for a man not to marry.

In opening this chapter Paul begins by quoting a question that the people of Corinth must have inquired about in their last letter to him. We can see this when he says "Now for the matters you wrote about", which implies a response to a previous question. Now, this opening verse can be very misleading if read from the wrong translation. The NIV states: "It is good for a man not to marry." This however, is not at all what Paul is saying here. The original language used here is not implying marriage, but is referring to having actual sexual intercourse with a woman. If Paul were speaking against marriage, than he would not have spoken so favorably of it in Ephesians 5 and 1 Timothy 3. Another important note is that the statement Paul is making in this passage should not be taken as an absolute. "It is his suggestion specifically for Corinth because of some present crisis there that he refers to in 7:26." (Mare, 227)[11]

Vs. 2. But since there is so much immorality, each man should have his own wife, and each woman her own husband.

This verse can also be easily misunderstood. The word have in this verse is not implying that those who are not married should go and find a spouse, that is actually the very opposite of what he tells them in vs. 8, 27, and 38. Have in this context means to "enjoy sexual possession of another person." (Hays, 113)[12] In fact, have in this verse is the same exact word in Greek that is used in 5:1 which literally translates: "for a man to have his father's wife.[13] The message to whom this verse is written than is not to the unmarried, which is commonly assumed, but to those who are already married. Paul is advocating and encouraging married couples to have sex.

Vs. 3. The husband should fulfill his marital duty to his wife, and likewise the wife to her husband.

Verse 2 is confirmed here as Paul continues to speak about marital duties. He is insistent that the husband needs to fulfill his marital duty, meaning sex, to his wife and she must do likewise. Equality between the man and woman is being stressed in this passage. The expression Paul is using here that the NIV translates as "duty" is the same that he uses in Romans 13:7. Romans 13:7 speaks about and deals with the area of taxing and respect of civil authority.[14] This offers a pretty accurate illustration of the kind of duty and respect that a husband and wife should show each other. What is unusual about this is that Paul is addressing the woman as directly as he is the man. This is not in line with the usual way of instruction during New Testament times. Women were rarely given direct teaching, it was the man who received it first and from him the wife indirectly received instruction. Another striking feature of this passage is that there is absolutely no mention of sex as procreation. There a enormous implications behind this fact. Paul does not advocate that sex is to be had only with the intention of children. This is very contrary to the writings of others during this time such as Philo and Josephus. The assumption here is that God intends sex, not just for procreation, to go hand in hand with marriage.[15]

Vs. 4. The wife's body does not belong to her alone but also to her husband. In the same way, the husband's body does not belong to him alone but also to his wife.

Paul is not saying here that the physical bodies of the husband and wife belong to each other, but rather "he is talking about the whole person with its physical and sexual characteristics." (Collins, 259)[16] Despite the male dominant culture during this time period, Paul advocates much more egalitarian conduct when it comes to a marriage. In a marriage, both the man and the woman have sexual rights and responsibilities to each other. This is not simply just talking about physical, emotionless sex, but rather a holistic connection between the two persons. "In marriage, Paul teaches that one's 'other,' be that husband or wife, holds the authority over the mate's body. The verb translated belong to in the NIV more literally means 'to have authority over,' so Paul in not concerned with ownership or property rights but with relationship and relatedness. (Soards, 139) [17]

Vs. 5. Do not deprive each other except by mutual consent and for a time, so that you may devote yourselves to prayer. Then come together again so that Satan will not tempt you because of your lack of self-control.

The original Greek word for deprive can also be translated rob, steal, or defraud. Paul is telling those in Corinth who are refusing sex with their spouses to quit. Abstinence is to come before marriage, it was never meant to be a part of marriage. Paul does grant that there can be certain temporary retreats from sex, the Greek word implies "for a season", however, this retreat from sex should not be a permanent one. During these times of abstinence the couple should be devoting themselves to prayer. This is similar to Jewish tradition; the Jewish people advocated that the husband had the right to refuse sex from his wife for spiritual purposes. Paul attests to this idea, however he declares that the decision must be mutual rather than distinctly the husband's decision. In the last part of this verse Paul reminds his readers that though they are married, they are still subject to Satan's temptation. A time of abstinence does not always mean that the husband and wife will be brought closer to God; in fact, because of the sexual temptation it may detract them. This is why Paul does not want the break from sex to be permanent. The human sexual urge is very strong and should not be taken lightly. [18]

Vs. 6. I say this as a concession, not as a command.

The statement made here is referring to vs. 5. Paul is not making any form of a commandment. Rather, he is offering personal advice. He does not claim to hold any command coming directly from God.[19]

Vs. 7. I wish that all men were as I am. But each man has his own gift from God; one has this gift, another has that.

Paul claims that he wishes all could be as he is. So, what exactly is Paul in this context? Scholars have been able to come up with some probable answers to this question. It is almost certain that Paul was married at some point. Paul claimed to be a Rabbi and had fulfilled all of his duties as such. In orthodox Judaism marriage was essential. "If a man did not marry and have children, he was said to have 'slain his posterity,' 'to have lessened the image of God in the world.'" (Barclay, 60) [20] This evidence shows the unlikeliness of Paul, who was at one point a devoted orthodox Jew, not being married at some point in his life. Another indication of Paul's marriage comes from Acts 26:10. Here we find that Paul would "cast his vote" in favor of the death of Christians. This suggests that Paul was a member of the Sanhedrin. For one to be member of the Sanhedrin, one is required to be married. It is always a possibility that Paul's wife had died, however, the more probable situation is that she had left him. When Paul became a Christian, his marriage most likely went down hill. He then chose to not pursue another marriage because his life became one of celibacy, traveling and devoting his life to evangelism. Now, back to Paul's statement about all being like him. This is not a belittlement of marriage. Paul was expecting Christ's second coming to be very quick. Because of this he discouraged such earthly things because he did not foresee the earth being relevant for much longer. He would rather see that everyone's concentration be on Christ's return instead of on each other.[21] Paul's advocation that each has his own gift sheds light on his view of faith. "He differs both from the Gnostics and also from the legalists in holding not that everyone's gifts are the same, but that each has his own, peculiar gift." (Conzelmann, 118) [22]

Concerning The Unmarried (Vs. 8-9)[edit]

Vs. 8. Now to the unmarried and the widows I say: It is good for them to stay unmarried, as I am.

Paul is now speaking to the single people. Those included in this category are most likely those who have never been married, those who have separated, and those who are widowed. Keep in mind that these claims coming from Paul are not at all divine command, but personal convictions. His point behind the notion of celibacy is to promote the Christian to serve God to their full capabilities, without any distraction or impediment.[23] The word good here should in know way be taken as better. [24] Paul is not advocating that his chosen lifestyle of celibacy is somehow superior or more exceptional than marriage. He offers himself as an example of a certain way of living. He is able to devote himself more fully to God than a married person because of his single life, but, it does not mean that all are called to this.

Vs. 9. But if they cannot control themselves, they should marry, for it is better to marry than to burn with passion.

This verse can easily be misunderstood if not analyzed correctly. The term control themselves is the same on Paul uses for self control in his list of the fruit of the Spirit (Gal. 5:23). Paul advocates that the life of celibacy is a spiritual gift. He is telling the people of Corinth that if they do not possess this gift, they should pursue marriage. He is pushing the Corinthians to either recognize their possession or lack of this gift. They should not try and force something on their lives if God has not given them that particular spiritual gift. [25] What Paul is putting forth here solves the problem of uncontrollable sexual desires prior to marriage. However, one must keep in mind that Paul is only speaking to the people of Corinth here about a specific situation. This can not be taken as a universal claim, if it were, than Paul would be made out to be encouraging Christians to get married only for sex. [26]

Concerning Divorce (Vs. 10-24)[edit]

Vs. 10. To the married I give this command (not I, but the Lord): A wife must not separate from her husband.

Paul’s tone seems to change a bit in this verse. He does not simply ask, but orders that those who are married not to get a divorce. He does not simply give this command himself but declares that the Lord is the one making this command. This is one of very few times that Paul appeals to Jesus’ teachings to support his instruction to the church. Paul is certainly referring to the several times that Jesus had prohibited divorce (Mk. 10:2-12, Mt. 5:31-32; 19:3-12, Lk. 16:18). It is likely that the people of Corinth sought out divorce as a way to practice celibacy since sex is an obligatory part of marriage. This idea of not being able to divorce was a very new concept for the people Paul’s time. In Jewish and Greco-Roman culture divorce was acceptable. Therefore, the whole idea of marriage and divorce was probably a pretty confusing subject for the early church. [27]

Vs. 11. But if she does, she must remain unmarried or else be reconciled to her husband. And a husband must not divorce his wife.

Vs. 12. To the rest I say this (I, not the Lord): If any brother has a wife who is not a believer and she is willing to live with him, he must not divorce her.

IMPLICATIONS[edit]

The theme of this chapter is all about fellowship within marriage. Marital problems existed as much when this book was written as they do now. Paul tries his best to address certain issues within the Christian sanctity of marriage that are still relevant today. It is obvious that marriage is important in God's eyes. When sex is taken outside of the sanctity of marriage, it results in detriment to a person's relationship with God as well as humanity. This is affirmed in in 1 Corinthians 6:15 which reads: "Do you not know that your bodies are members of Christ himself? Shall I then take the members of Christ and unite them with a prostitute? Never!" (NIV). There are some major points that are made in chapter 7. One, men need to show the love their wives and show that love to them. A second point made would be that both the husband and wife need to submit to each other in mutual respect. Third, both husband and wife must not deprive each other of sexual relations.

WORD STUDY[edit]

Marry[edit]

The word appears thirty-two different times in the New Testament. In 1 Corinthian 7 it appears thirteen different times (9, 10, 28, 33, 34, 36, 38, and 39). The word is usually used in the context involving all aspects of the marriage. This includes the ceremony as well as what takes place afterward, such as the wedding feast. [28]

Husband[edit]

The word appears sixty-seven different times in the New Testament. In 1 Corinthian 7 it appears fifteen different times (2, 3, 4, 10, 11, 13, 14, 16, 34, and 39). The husband is the one who connects and holds the family together. In Jewish culture he is the authoritative figure in any given family. According to Matthew 1:16, 20 and Luke 2:5, once a man is betrothed he is, from that time on, considered a husband. [29]

Wife[edit]

The word appears one-hundred and eight different times in the New Testament. In 1 Corinthian 7 it appears sixteen different times (2, 3, 4, 10, 11, 12, 14, 16, 27, 33, and 39). The wife’s rights and duties are listed all throughout the Old and New Testaments (Ex. 21:10, Prov. 31:10-31, 1 Tim. 5:14, Deut. 22:13-21). Divorce is limited to them, it is only allowed in the case of unfaithfulness. 1 Corinthians 7 is a big section devoted to relations between husbands and wives along with Ephesians 5, Colossians 3, and 1 Peter 3. [30]

WORDS FOR FURTHER STUDY[edit]

Vs 2. – Immorality

Vs 3. – Duty

Vs 4. – Body

Vs 5. – Prayer, Satan, Tempt, Self- Control

Vs 6. – Command

Vs 7. – Gift

Vs 8. – Unmarried, Widow

Vs 10. – Separate

Vs 11. – Divorce

Vs 12. – Brother, Believer

Vs 14. – Sanctified, Unclean, Holy

Vs 15. – Peace

Vs 18. – Circumcision

Vs 21. – Slave, Freedom

Vs 25. – Virgin

Vs 36. - Engaged

SOURCES[edit]

  1. Metz, Donald S. 1 Corinthians: Beacon Bible Commentary. Kansas City: Beacon Hill Press, 1968.
  2. Erdman, Charles R. The First Epistle of Paul to the Corinthians. Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1928.
  3. http://gbgm-umc.org/umw/corinthians/city.stm
  4. Reed, Oscar F. Corinthians: Beacon Bible Expositions. Kansas City: Beacon Hill Press, 1976.
  5. Reed, Oscar F. Corinthians: Beacon Bible Expositions. Kansas City: Beacon Hill Press, 1976.
  6. Mare, Harold W. 1 Corinthians: The Expositors Bible Commentary. Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House, 1976.
  7. Kelly, Balmer H. The Layman's Bible Commentary.1 Corinthians. Richmond: John Knox Press, 1961.
  8. Kelly, Balmer H. The Layman's Bible Commentary.1 Corinthians. Richmond: John Knox Press, 1961.
  9. Kelly, Balmer H. The Layman's Bible Commentary.1 Corinthians. Richmond: John Knox Press, 1961.
  10. Kelly, Balmer H. The Layman's Bible Commentary.1 Corinthians. Richmond: John Knox Press, 1961.
  11. Mare, Harold W. 1 Corinthians: The Expositors Bible Commentary. Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House, 1976.
  12. Hays, Richard B. Interpretation: A Bible Commentary for Teaching and Preaching. First Corinthians. Louisville: John Knox Press, 1997.
  13. Hays, Richard B. Interpretation: A Bible Commentary for Teaching and Preaching. First Corinthians. Louisville: John Knox Press, 1997.
  14. Collins, Raymond F. Sacra Pagina: First Corinthians. Collegeville: The Liturgical Press, 1999.
  15. Garland, David E. 1 Corinthians: Baker Exegetical Commentary on the New Testament. Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 2003.
  16. Collins, Raymond F. Sacra Pagina: First Corinthians. Collegeville: The Liturgical Press, 1999.
  17. Soards, Marion L. 1 Corinthians: New International Biblical Commentary. Peabody: Hendrickson Publishers, 1999.
  18. Garland, David E. 1 Corinthians: Baker Exegetical Commentary on the New Testament. Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 2003.
  19. Metz, Donald S. 1 Corinthians: Beacon Bible Commentary. Kansas City: Beacon Hill Press, 1968.
  20. Barclay, William. The Daily Study Bible Series: The Letters to the Corinthians. Louisville: John Knox Press, 1975.
  21. Barclay, William. The Daily Study Bible Series: The Letters to the Corinthians. Louisville: John Knox Press, 1975.
  22. Conzelmann, Hans. Hermeneia: A Critical and Historical Commentary on the Bible. 1 Corinthians. Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1975.
  23. Metz, Donald S. 1 Corinthians: Beacon Bible Commentary. Kansas City: Beacon Hill Press, 1968.
  24. Collins, Raymond F. Sacra Pagina: First Corinthians. Collegeville: The Liturgical Press, 1999.
  25. Soards, Marion L. 1 Corinthians: New International Biblical Commentary. Peabody: Hendrickson Publishers, 1999.
  26. Metz, Donald S. 1 Corinthians: Beacon Bible Commentary. Kansas City: Beacon Hill Press, 1968.
  27. Hays, Richard B. Interpretation: A Bible Commentary for Teaching and Preaching. First Corinthians. Louisville: John Knox Press, 1997.
  28. Vine, W., & Bruce, F. (1981; Published in electronic form by Logos Research Systems, 1996). Vine's Expository dictionary of Old and New Testament words (2:44). Old Tappan NJ: Revell.
  29. Easton, M. (1996, c1897). Easton's Bible dictionary. Oak Harbor, WA: Logos Research Systems, Inc.
  30. Easton, M. (1996, c1897). Easton's Bible dictionary. Oak Harbor, WA: Logos Research Systems, Inc.