Bengali/Grammar

From Wikibooks, open books for an open world
< Bengali
Jump to: navigation, search

Some basic sentence patterns in Bengali are given below.

Subject + "be" verb + noun/adjective[edit]

There are different ways of expressing the verb "to be." The "to be" verb that deals with personality and character traits is mostly omitted in the present tense (e.g., the forms আছি, হই, হও, হয়, etc.).

  • I am. - আমি - Ami.
  • You (sg.) are. - তুমি - Tumi
  • He/she is. - সে - Shay
  • We are. - আমরা - Amra
  • You (pl.) are. - তোমরা - Tomra
  • They are. - তারা - Tara
  • John is. - জন - John


  • I am well. - আমি ভাল (আছি)। - Ami bhalo (achi).
  • He is tall. - সে লম্বা। - Shay lomba.
  • She is beautiful. - সে সুন্দরী। - Shay sundori.
  • You are intelligent. - তুমি বুদ্ধিমান। - Tumi buddhiman.
  • We are humans. - আমরা মানুষ। - Amra Manush.

In the other tenses, the verb "hooya," which means "to become" can be used.

Another way of expressing the "to be" verb is to use the verb stem "ach-", which literally means "to be present."

  • Ami ekhane achi. - I am here.
  • Tumi ekhane acho. - You (sg/informal) are here.
  • Se ekhane ache. - He/she (far/informal) is here.
  • Amra ekhane achi. - We are here. (I/we have the same conjugated verb)
  • Tomra ekhane acho. - You (pl/informal) are here.
  • Tini ekhane achen. - They are here.

Present Tense[edit]

The simple present conveys ideas such as "I sleep", "We eat", "You work".

In Bengali, the simple present tense is conjugated by adding the verb root, plus an ending. The ending depends on the person of speech (i.e., I/you/we/them etc..).

For example, the verb 'to eat' in Bengali is 'khete', which has the root 'kha'.

  • Ami (I): Kha-i
  • Tumi (You sg/informal): Kha-o
  • O(he/she): Kha-e
  • Amra (We): Kha-i
  • Tumra (You pl/informal): Kha-o
  • Ora (Them / informal): Kha-e
  • Apna (You formal): Kha-n

In general, the verb endings are as follows:

  • Ami (I): root + "i"
  • Tumi (You sg/informal): root + "o"
  • O(he/she): root + "e"
  • Amra (We): root + "i"
  • Tumra (You pl/informal): root + "o"
  • Ora (Them / Informal): root + "e"
  • Apna (You formal): root + "en"

Examples:

  • I eat: Ami Khai
  • You eat: Tumi Khao
  • He eats fish: O Mach khae
  • We eat quickly: Amra taratari khai

Present Participle[edit]

The present participle represents actions which are currently being done in the present. In English, you would say "I am eating", "He is sleeping", "We are working".

In Bengali, you conjugate the present participle by taking the verb root, and adding an ending which depends on the person of speech of the subject (i.e, I / we/ us / they).

For example, the verb 'to eat' in Bengali is 'khete', which has the root 'kha'.

  • Ami (I): Kha-chi
  • Tumi (You sg/informal): Kha-cho
  • O(he/she): Kha-che
  • Amra (We): Kha-chi
  • Tumra (You pl/informal): Kha-cho
  • Ora (Them / informal): Kha-che
  • Apna (You formal): Kha-chen

In general, the verb endings are as follows:

  • Ami (I): root + "chi"
  • Tumi (You sg/informal): root + "cho"
  • O(he/she): root + "che"
  • Amra (We): root + "chi"
  • Tumra (You pl/informal): root + "cho"
  • Ora (Them / Informal): root + "che"
  • Apna (You formal): root + "chen"


Examples:

  • I am eating: Ami Khachi
  • You (inf) are eating: Tumi Khacho
  • He is sleeping: O Gumache
  • We are sleeping: Amra Gumachi
  • You (formal) are sleeping: Apni Gumachen