Basic Physics of Digital Radiography/Quiz3

From Wikibooks, open books for an open world
Jump to: navigation, search
Question book-3.png

A quiz on the Technology of Radiographic Imaging is available below for those who wish to test their knowledge and understanding of this topic.

Additional quizzes are also available on:



Technology of Radiographic Imaging[edit]

Point added for a correct answer:   
Points for a wrong answer:
Ignore the questions' coefficients:

1. The phosphor most likely to be used in indirect digital radiography is:

BaFlBr:Eu.
CsI:Tl.
Correct answer - see Digital Radiography.
NaI:Tl.
a-Se.

2. With regard to computed radiographic (CR) imaging:

Images with the same CR exposure index are all obtained with the same radiation dose to the patient.
An automatic exposure control (AEC) is not required.
Unlike photographic film, CR plates are impervious to “fogging” by background radiation during storage.
Good quality diagnostic images can be acquired with radiation exposures which are similar to those required for film/screen imaging.
Correct answer.

3. A radiographic image is acquired using a 42 cm x 30 cm CR plate. The scanned digital image obtained from this plate has an effective pixel size of 0.2 mm. The image is acquired at 80 kVp, 30 mAs. A 3 megapixel (2,100x1,500) display will be therefore be required to display this image. Is this statement:

TRUE.
Correct answer - see Digital Images.
FALSE.

4. A patient undergoes two AP radiographic examinations of the abdomen on the same high frequency X-ray unit. The settings are: (1) 85 kV, 350 mA and 0.2s; (2) 85 kV, 600 mA and 0.15s. The entrance skin dose of examination (2) relative to that of the first examination is about:

30% less.
10% less.
the same.
10% greater.
30% greater.
Correct answer.

5. Pulsed fluoroscopy is generally used to:

reduce motion blur.
reduce patient dose.
reduce the effective focal spot size.
Correct answer - see Skin Injury.
increase kVp stabilization.

6. A radiologist wants to improve the spatial resolution of the anatomy being examined. The change most likely to lead to this is:

increased field of view, same matrix size.
selection of a smoothing algorithm.
increased matrix size, same field of view.
Correct answer.
decreased collimation.

7. An 8:1 grid is replaced with a 12:1 grid. This will have the effect of:

Increasing contrast and patient radiation dose.
Correct answer - see Subject Contrast.
Increasing contrast with no change in patient radiation dose.
Increasing contrast and reducing patient radiation dose.
Decreasing contrast and patient radiation dose.

8. Scattered radiation arising in a patient increases sharpness in the resulting image. Is this statement:

TRUE.
FALSE.
Correct answer - see Subject Contrast.

9. In an X-ray tube, the actual anode focal area for a 17.5º anode angle is 4 mm (length) by 1.2 rnm (width). What is the effective focal spot size at the central axis in the X-ray field (Note: sine 17.5º is ~0.3.)?

4 mm (length) by 1.2 mm (width).
4 mm (length) by 0.4 mm (width).
1.2 mm (length) by 4 mm (width).
1.2 mm (length) by 1.2 mm (width).
Correct answer - see X-Ray Tube.

10. The fluoroscopy factors displayed on a monitor are 120 kV and 20 mA. Which one of the following statements is true?

the display is wrong.
the XII is too close to the patient.
the skin entrance dose rate is normal.
the skin entrance dose rate is extremely high.
Correct answer.
the skin entrance dose rate is too low.

11. The gamma of an Antimony Trisulphide target video camera is generally:

Less than 1.
Correct answer - see Video Camera.
Equal to 1.
Greater than 1.
Variable.

12. Scattered radiation arising in a patient decreases contrast in the resulting radiographic image. Is this statement:

TRUE.
Correct answer - see Subject Contrast.
FALSE.

13. Increasing the filtration of an 80 kV X-ray beam from 2 to 3 mm Al will:

increase the intensity.
soften the beam.
decrease the effective beam energy.
none of the above.
Correct answer - see Beam Filtration.

14. In digital subtraction angiography (DSA), video cameras are generally used in the progressive scan mode. This implies:

Repeated scanning of the same video image to improve signal-to-noise ratio.
Scanning adjacent raster lines sequentially after termination of the X-ray exposure.
Correct answer - see Temporal Resolution.
Scanning the video camera target at appropriate intervals during the X-ray exposure.
Use of a double interlaced vidicon beam.

15. All other factors remaining unchanged, the signal -to-noise ratio in digitally subtracted images can be increased by summing several frames for both mask and contrast image. Is this statement:

TRUE.
Correct answer - see DSA Image Noise.
FALSE.

16. Patient skin dose rate will decrease with kV only when:

the pulse rate is increased.
the tube current is reduced.
Correct answer.
the grid is removed.
the collimators are fully open.

17. The image file format widely used thoughout digital medical imaging is:

JPEG.
TIFF.
DICOM.
Correct answer - see Image Storage & Distribution.
HDR.

18. Scattered radiation arising in a patient is more penetrating than the primary radiation. Is this statement:

TRUE.
FALSE.
Correct answer - see Subject Contrast.

19. A 22 cm multi-mode image intensifier is switched to the 11 cm mode. As a result, the image will be _________ and the automatic brightness control system will _________ the exposure to the image intensifier and the patient:

Magnified; decrease.
Minified; decrease.
Magnified; increase.
Correct answer - see XII-Video Systems.
Magnified; not change.

20. DSA images are generally transformed logarithmically prior to subtraction in order to:

reduce scatter effects.
eliminate motion artefacts.
correct for exponential attenuation.
Correct answer - see Basic DSA Physics.
sharpen vessel edges.

21. All other factors remaining unchanged, the signal -to-noise ratio in digitally subtracted images can be increased by increasing the exposure per frame. Is this statement:

TRUE.
Correct answer - see DSA Image Noise.
FALSE.

22. For a pixel size of 0.64 mm, 50% of the Nyquist frequency is:

0.16 LP/mm.
0.32 LP/mm.
0.39 LP/mm.
Correct answer - see Digital Images.
0.64 LP/mm.

23. Which one of the following is not evidence of good radiation dose management?

moving the XII as close to the patient as practicable.
collimating the field of view as tightly as possible.
monitoring screening time and dose-area product (DAP) for each procedure.
always using a grid.
Correct answer.

24. A radiographic image is acquired using a 42 cm x 30 cm CR plate. The scanned digital image obtained from this plate has an effective pixel size of 0.2 mm. The image is acquired at 80 kVp, 30 mAs. The Nyquist frequency is therefore 2.5 LP/mm. Is this statement:

TRUE.
Correct answer - see Digital Images.
FALSE.

25. Processing a digital radiograph using Unsharp Masking increases the:

patient dose.
image magnification.
landmarking.
visualisation of edges.
Correct answer - see Digital Image Processing.

26. Scattered radiation arising in a patient increases with increasing irradiated volume. Is this statement:

TRUE.
Correct answer - see Subject Contrast.
FALSE.

27. Fluorography typically:

results in dose rates which are much less than in fluoroscopy.
uses the same dose rate as fluoroscopy.
uses dose rates 10-50 times greater than in fluoroscopy.
Correct answer - see The Image Receptor.
produces images of far inferior quality to fluoroscopy.

28. In an X-ray image intensifier, X-rays are converted into light at the:

Photo-cathode.
Anode.
Input phosphor.
Correct answer - see X-Ray Image Intensifier.
Output phosphor.

29. All other factors remaining unchanged, the signal -to-noise ratio in digitally subtracted images can be increased by increasing the matrix size from 512x512 to 1024x1024 pixels. Is this statement:

TRUE.
FALSE.
Correct answer - see DSA Image Noise.

30. The binding energies of the K, L, and M shell electrons in tungsten are 69.5, 11.0 and 2.5 keV, respectively. What photon energies will be present in its characteristic X-ray spectrum?:

67.0, 58.5, 8.5 keV.
Correct answer - see Electron Binding.
80.5, 72.0, 13.5 keV.
69.5, 11.0, 2.5 keV.
Continuous spectrum from 2.5 to 69.5 keV

31. The magnification mode of an image intensifier is switched from 15 cm to 30 cm. In order to maintain the same image brightness, the exposure at the image intensifier input phosphor must roughly:

halve.
remain the same.
double.
quadruple.
Correct answer.

32. In Computed Radiography, photostimulable luminance is stimulated by:

microwaves.
red light.
Correct answer - see Computed Radiography.
ultraviolet.
ultrasound.

33. A radiographic image is acquired using a 42 cm x 30 cm CR plate. The scanned digital image obtained from this plate has an effective pixel size of 0.2 mm. The image is acquired at 80 kVp, 30 mAs. Increasing the mAs to 90 will therefore result in a much darker image. Is this statement:

TRUE.
FALSE.
Correct answer - see Image Contrast.

34. In an X-ray image intensifier, the overall gain in image brightness is of the order 5000:1 but the gain in brightness due to acceleration of electrons is only about 50:1. The other contribution to brightness gain is the:

Preamplifier gain.
Conversion efficiency.
Video camera.
Minification gain due to the reduction of image size.
Correct answer - see X-Ray Image Intensifier.

35. All other factors remaining unchanged, the signal -to-noise ratio in digitally subtracted images can be increased by processing the subtracted image with an edge sharpening filter. Is this statement:

TRUE.
FALSE.
Correct answer - see DSA Image Noise.

36. Which ONE of the following will increase subject contrast in a CR imaging system?

Selecting a narrower window for display.
Increasing x-ray beam filtration
Decreasing the kV.
Correct answer - see Subject Contrast.
Decreasing the Grid Ratio.

37. The storage required on an optical disk for 2000 images of size 1024 x 1024 and depth 8 bits is approximately?

1 MByte.
1 GByte.
2 GByte.
Correct answer - see Digital Images.
16 MByte.

38. The input phosphor material in a modern X-ray image intensifier is typically:

CdWO4.
CsI:Na.
Correct answer - see X-Ray Image Intensifier.
LaOBr.
A rare earth material.

39. A kilobyte is equal to:

1000 bytes.
1024 bytes.
Correct answer - see Binary Representation.
A quarter of a megabyte.
0.1% of a megabyte.

40. The contrast of DSA images can be increased by:

using a higher kVp.
reducing the intensity of detected scattered radiation.
Correct answer - see Basic DSA Physics.
increasing the intensity of detected scattered radiation.
reducing the air gap.

41. A radiograph is acquired using a 25 cm square image receptor and is digitised to a 512x512 matrix. The spatial resolution is:

0.5 LP/mm.
1.0 LP/mm.
Correct answer - see Digital Images.
2.0 LP/mm.
4.0 LP/mm.

42. The most commonly used reconstruction technique in Cone-Beam CT is called:

Algebraic Reconstruction.
Filtered Back Projection.
Correct answer - see Cone-Beam Computed Tomography.
Fourier Reconstruction.
Iterative Reconstruction.

43. All other factors remaining unchanged, the signal -to-noise ratio in digitally subtracted images can be increased by increasing the sensitivity of the image receptor. Is this statement:

TRUE.
Correct answer - see DSA Image Noise.
FALSE.

44. Which one of the following would most likely be used in a DR image receptor?

CsI:Tl.
Correct answer - see Digital Radiography.
LiF
CaWO4.
NaI:Tl.

45. Scattered radiation arising in a patient decreases with increasing kV applied to the X-ray tube. Is this statement:

TRUE.
FALSE.
Correct answer - see Subject Contrast.

46. A Charge-Coupled Device can be used in digital fluoroscopy:

In lieu of a conventional video camera to look at the output of the image intensifier.
Correct answer - see XII-Video Systems.
For filtration of the X-ray beam.
As a mechanism to reduce scattered radiation.
As a collimation device.

47. In analogue to digital conversion, a memory 10 bits deep allows how many grey levels?

10.
128.
512.
1024.
Correct answer - see Binary Representation.

48. With regard to TV cameras which statement is false?

Video tubes vary in contrast depending on the type of target used.
A vidicon has more lag than a plumbicon.
The Australian TV scanning standard is 625 lines, interlaced.
A low bandpass system is required for best spatial resolution.
Correct answer.

49. To reproduce a square wave with a Fourier series ideally:

Requires up to 3 component frequencies.
Requires an infinite number of component frequencies.
Correct answer - see The Fourier Transform.
Is theoretically impossible.
Requires one component frequency.

50. When two images are subtracted, the noise is:

increased by about 40%.
Correct answer - see DSA Image Noise.
unchanged.
decreased by about 40%.
decreased by a factor of 2.

51. The heel effect is caused by:

Operating the X-ray tube with the beam horizontal.
Placing wedge filters in the X-ray beam.
Different path lengths of electrons in the anode.
Correct answer - see X-Ray Tube.
Misaligned collimation.

Your score is 0 / 0