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- Seen (س) makes the [s] sound as in "see". Never pronounce it like a [z]. In English we often mix our [z] and [s] sounds subconsciously.
- Sheen (ش) makes the [ʃ] sound as in "she". It is often spelled "sh" in English, but has several other spellings too.
- Saad (ص) makes the emphatic [sˁ] sound. Refer to the description of emphatic sounds in Row 2.
- Daad (ض) makes the [d̪ˁ] sound. It is the same as د, only emphatic.
- Qaaf (ق) makes the [q] sound — another non-English sound. It is similar to [k], but it is pronounced further back in the mouth, almost touching the very back.
- Laam (ل) makes the [l] sound as in "lip". It might actually be [l̪], in which case it would be pronounced further forward that the English version, with the tip of the tongue on the back of the teeth.
- Noon (ن) makes the [n] sound as in "now".
- Often pronounced as a [zˁ] in non-standard dialects