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All these letters are non-connectors. They have two forms: connected (being connected to), non-connected (not being connected to).
- Alif (ا) has several uses. The first is that whenever a word begins with a vowel it begins with an alif. The second use of it is the long "aa" sound as in "bat". The second use of it occurs when the alif is plain and does not begin a word. The third use is indicating the glottal stop, but this usually requires a diacritic.
- Daal (د) makes the [d̪] sound. In the same way as the ت in Row 4, this is very similar to the English 'd' with some minor differences.
- Dhaal (ذ) makes the [ð] sound. In English, this is like "th" in "weather", not the one in "think".
- Raa' (ر) sounds like [r], the trilled "r" sound. This sound does not exist in standard English, but it is used sometimes in 'proper' British English. It is the same as the 'r' in Italian or Latin. It is not the same "r" sound as in standard English, but one can still be understood pronouncing it as such.
- Zaa' (ز) makes the [z] sound, like the first sound in "zap".
- Waaw (و) makes the [w] sound, like the first sound in "week".