Applied Science BTEC Nationals/Physiology of Human Body Systems

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Content[edit]

On completion of this unit a learner should:

1. Know the levels of organisation within the human body
2. Be able to relate the structure of the circulatory system to its function in a multi-cellular organism
3. Be able to relate the structure of the respiratory system to its function
4. Be able to relate the structure of the digestive system to its function
5. Understand the immunological function of the lymphatic system.

Context[edit]

  • We all appear to be fascinated by how our bodies work. This unit will give you an insight into how the human body works (human physiology).
  • Practical work and research will help you relate the material in this unit to the functioning of the human body. You will then be in a position to use this information to understand the basic systems that make up a healthy human body.
  • You will also study what happens when things go wrong with the body.
  • You will look at the building blocks (cells, tissues and organs) that make up the systems in the body, and study digestion, respiration and circulation. The emphasis will be on understanding the interrelationships between these systems and how they contribute to the working of the whole human body.
  • You will investigate how the various human physiology systems work by doing experiments and using apparatus. The practicals may involve taking measurements to investigate respiration and cardiovascular rates, or the passage of materials around the body or through membranes.
  • You will be expected to analyse the results and draw conclusions just as a laboratory technician might do.
  • By the end of the unit you will have developed your practical skills and increased your knowledge and understanding of human physiology systems.

Learning outcomes[edit]

On completion of this unit a learner should:

  1. Understand how structure and function are related in living human cells
  2. Understand how the energy requirements of the human body relate to the functioning of the digestive system and be able to carry out blood sugar measurements
  3. Understand the role of transport systems in the human body and be able to carry out cardiovascular measurements
  4. Understand the structure and functioning of the respiratory system and be able to measure respiratory functions.


Assignment 1[edit]

Understand how structure and function are related in living human cells

P1 /M1 /D1

Pancreatic acinar cells - TEM.jpg


Task 1 (P1)[edit]

Produce a presentation that includes labelled diagrams/pictures illustrating the structure and function of the following cells, tissues and organs.

a) A human cell, as observed from an electron micrograph. To include;

  • Plasma membrane,
  • Cytoplasm,
  • Nucleus,
  • Ribosome,
  • Endoplasmic reticulum,
  • Mitochondria,
  • Centrioles
  • Centrosomes

b) A detailed diagram of the plasma membrane (fluid mosaic model) that illustrates transport across the membrane

Include the following tissues;

c) Epithelial (covering, lining and glandular)

d) Connective (cartilage, bone, areolar, adipose, elastic)

e) Muscle (smooth, skeletal, cardiac)

f) Nerve tissues (neurons, neuralgia)

g) Include 2 examples illustrating; A tissue that shows abnormalities from normal structure.

h) Complete the Organ Trail activity

Task 2 (M1)[edit]

In this task you are asked to produce a detailed & annotated diagram (correctly referenced) that explains the relationship between structure & function of the major organ systems of the body. Include the following systems;

a) Integumentary,

b) Circulatory,

c) Lymphatic,

d) Urinary,

e) Nervous,

f) Endocrine,

g) Skeletal,

h) Muscular,

i) Reproductive (Male & Female)

Task 3 (D1)[edit]

Explain changes seen in tissue owing to disease. Examples could be;

  • Failure of foramen ovale to close after birth
  • Failure of the ductus arteriosus to close after birth
  • Diverticulitis infected sac in the colon

Explain possible causes for the state of the tissue, relating disease to malfunction of tissues

Assignment 2[edit]

Understand how the energy requirements of the human body relate to the functioning of the digestive system and be able to carry out blood sugar measurements

P2/ M2 /D2

Glucose test.JPG


Task 1 (P2)[edit]

a) Complete the blood glucose monitoring activity, copy & complete the table below.

Average blood glucose (mmol/L)
Blood glucose before eating (mmol/L)

Class Blood Glucose Measurements

NAME Practice measurement (mmol/L) Before eating (mmol/L) 90mins after eating (mmol/L)

b) On your results table, highlight any anomalous results obtained, give possible reasons for these. (Do not include human error as a reason!!!)

c) Interpret (explain the meaning of) your results.

  • What happened?
  • Why?
  • Compare your results to expected normal ranges for blood glucose – how do they compare?
  • Link this to the functioning of the digestive system
  • Explain your results using some SCIENCE

Task 2 (M2)[edit]

a) Compile a food diary for one day, include EVERYTHING that you eat, or drink. Compare your nutrient intake to the recommended DRV. Submit your table as evidence.

c) Explain the meaning of;

  • Metabolism
  • Anabolism (give a clear example)
  • Catabolism (give a clear example

d) Identify how the body metabolises the products of digestion, including the associated chemical equations. Include;

  • Carbohydrates (glucose)
  • Proteins (amino acids)
  • Lipids (fatty acid & glycerol)

e) Outline the main structures and functions of the human digestive system, and give a clear description showing where & how the major food groups are processed.

f) State how the energy requirements of the body are obtained. Include glucose and cellular respiration.

g)Submit the results table from your enzyme experiments


Task 3 (D2)[edit]

Complete the attached set of questions that requires the interpretation of data relating to the digestive system & essential dietary nutrients;


Assignment 3[edit]

Understand the role of transport systems in the human body and be able to carry out cardiovascular measurements

P3/ M3

Task 1 (P3)[edit]

a) Take physiological measurements of the Cardiovascular System before & after exercise. Include the following physiological measurements;

  • Baseline measurements
  • Heart Rate (bpm)
  • Blood Pressure (mmHg)
  • Temperature (°C)

b) Submit your results table (highlight anomalies)

c) Submit the conclusion. Ensure you include the following;

  • Show knowledge of the structure & function of the cardiovascular system
  • Correctly interpret results.
  • Give reasons for any anomalous results

Task 2 (M3)[edit]

Explain the requirement for a transport system in the body and how this is achieved

Include;

  • Transport (gases, nutrients, waste products, hormones, heat)
  • Defence
  • Regulation (temperature, pH, water content)
  • Lymphatic System

For example;

  • How does the body deal with the constant leakage of fluid from the cells?
  • Which part of the transport system ensures this intracellular fluid is returned?


Remember an annotated diagram is always a good thing

Assignment 4[edit]

Understand the structure and functioning of the respiratory system and be able to measure respiratory functions

P4/ M4/ D4/ D3

Task 1 (P4)[edit]

a) Complete the investigation; ‘The Lung Capacity Activity’.

b) Submit your results table (highlight anomalies)

c) Interpret your results & relate them to the functioning of the respiratory system. Ensure you include the following;

  • Show knowledge of the structure & function of the respiratory system
  • Correctly interpret results.
  • Explain what you are measuring.
  • Give reasons for any anomalous results
  • Explain what is happening!!

Task 2 (D4)[edit]

Analyse and draw conclusions from the data you have collected, and relate this to the functioning of the respiratory system.

Include;

  • You must take your own experimental data and interpret the results against published data.
  • You must display the ability to identify crucial factors, analyse them and then reach a conclusion which you can justify using the primary and secondary data identified.
  • The method of presentation may include the use of software packages to present charts and graphs and perhaps diagrammatical representations of some conclusions.

Task 3 (M4)[edit]

Explain how measurements related to the respiratory system may change under different conditions including disease.

Include;

  • You must demonstrate understanding of the effects of external factors on the respiratory system (such as exercise and temperature).
  • You must also know how diseases affect the respiratory system and how malfunctions can be detected in respiratory measurements.

Task 4 (D3)[edit]

Explain how the digestive, cardiovascular and respiratory systems are interrelated

Hints;

  • Link the functions of three body systems.
  • The emphasis here is on identifying the functions of each system and showing how they are interrelated.
  • This work lends itself to annotated diagrams with explanatory text rather than a long essay.


Resources[edit]

Edexcel recommend the following resources except (*) which have been added. official criteria from edexcel: http://www.edexcel.com/migrationdocuments/BTEC%20Nationals%20from%202010/Unit_11_Physiology_of_Human_Body_Systems.pdf

Textbooks[edit]

Adds J et al. — Respiration and Co-ordination (Nelson Advanced Science: Biology Series) (Nelson Thornes Ltd, 2005) ISBN 0748774890

Boyle M et al. — Human Biology (Collins Advanced Science Series) (Collins Educational, 2002) ISBN 0007135998

Fullick A — Body Systems and Health (Life Science In-Depth) (Heinemann, 2006) ISBN 1403475199

Johnson M D — Human Biology: Concepts & Current/Issues with Interactive Physiology for Human Biology CD-ROM, 3rd Edition (Benjamin Cummings, 2005) ISBN 0805354344

Parkinson P — ‘A’ Level Human Biology: Advanced Subsidiary (AS) Human Biology (2000) ISBN 1853568961

Parkinson P — ‘A’ Level Human Biology: Advanced GCE (A2) Human Biology (2000) ISBN 185356897X

Pickering W R — A-level Advanced Human Biology Through Diagrams (Oxford University press, 2001) ISBN 0199141967

Simpkins J and Williams J I — Advanced Human Biology (Collins Educational, 1987) ISBN 000322290X

Tortora G J — Principles of Anatomy and Physiology (John Wiley & Sons, 2005) ISBN 0471718718

Website[edit]

Health and Safety Executive guidance for employers and employees on blood-borne viruses in the workplace.



Textbooks

• Adds J et al. — Respiration and Co-ordination (Nelson Advanced Science: Biology Series) (Nelson Thornes Ltd, 2005) ISBN 0748774890 • Boyle M et al. — Human Biology (Collins Advanced Science Series) (Collins Educational, (2002) ISBN 0007135998 • Fullick A — Body Systems and Health (Life Science In-Depth) (Heinemann, 2006) ISBN 1403475199 • Johnson M D — Human Biology: Concepts & Current/Issues with Interactive Physiology for Human Biology CD-ROM, 3rd Edition (Benjamin Cummings, 2005) ISBN 0805354344 • Parkinson P — ‘A’ Level Human Biology: Advanced Subsidiary (AS) Human Biology (2000) ISBN 1853568961 • Parkinson P — ‘A’ Level Human Biology: Advanced GCE (A2) Human Biology (2000) ISBN 185356897X • Pickering W R — A-level Advanced Human Biology Through Diagrams (Oxford University press, 2001) ISBN 0199141967 • Simpkins J and Williams J I — Advanced Human Biology (Collins Educational, 1987) ISBN 000322290X • Tortora G J — Principles of Anatomy and Physiology (John Wiley & Sons, 2005) ISBN 0471718718

Websites

www.cellsalive.com www.biotopics.com http://www.bbc.co.uk/science/humanbody/ http://www.ibiblio.org/virtualcell/tour/cell/cell.htm http://www.innerbody.com/htm/body.html http://www.instantanatomy.net/