Anatomy and Physiology of Animals/Table of contents

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Table of Contents for Print Version

Chapter 1 Chemicals[edit]

Page Number

14 Objectives

14 Elements and atoms

15 Compounds and molecules

16 Chemical reactions

16 Ionisation

16 Organic and inorganic compounds

17 Carbohydrates

18 Fats

19 Proteins

20 Summary

21 Test Yourself

21 Websites

22 Answers

Chapter 2 Classification[edit]

23 Objectives

24 Naming and classifying animals

24 Naming animals

24 Classification of living organisms

25 The animal kingdom

26 The classification of vertebrates

27 Summary

28 Test yourself

28 Websites

29 Answers

Chapter 3 The Cell[edit]

30 Objectives

30 The cell

32 The plasma membrane

32 How substances move across the plasma membrane

32 The cytoplasm

32 Diffusion

33 Osmosis

35 Active transport

37 Golgi apparatus

38 Lysosomes

38 Microfilaments and microtubules

38 The nucleus

38 Chromosomes

39 Cell division

40 Summary

41 Test yourself

42 Websites

43 Answers

Chapter 4 Body Organisation[edit]

44 Objectives

44 The organisation of animal bodies

45 Epithelial tissues

47 Connective tissues

49 Muscle tissues

50 Nervous tissues

50 Vertebrate bodies

50 Body cavities

51 Organs

51 Generalised plan of the mammalian body

52 Body systems

53 Homeostasis

53 Directional terms

54 Summary

55 Test yourself

56 Websites

57 Answers

Chapter 5 The Skin[edit]

58 Objectives

59 The skin

60 Skin structures made of keratin

60 laws and nails

60 Horns and antlers

61 Hair

62 Feathers

63 Skin glands

64 The skin and sun

64 The skin and temperature regulation

66 Summary

66 Test yourself

67 Websites

67 Answers

Chapter 6 The Skeleton[edit]

69 Objectives

70 The vertebral column

71 The skull

71 The ribs

72 The forelimb

73 The hindlimb

74 The girdles

74 Categories of bones

74 Bird skeletons

75 The structure of long bones

76 Compact bone

77 Spongy bone

77 Bone growth

77 Broken bones

78 Joints

78 Common names of joints

79 Locomotion

79 Summary

80 Test yourself

81 Websites

82 Answers

Chapter 7 Muscles[edit]

83 Objectives

83 Muscles

83 Smooth muscle

84 Cardiac muscle

84 Skeletal muscle

84 Structure of a muscle

85 Summary

85 Test yourself

86 Websites

87 Answers

Chapter 8 Cardiovascular System[edit]

Blood

89 Objectives

89 Plasma

90 Red blood cells

91 White blood cells

92 Platelets

92 Transport of oxygen

92 Carbon monoxide poisoning

92 Transport of carbon dioxide

92 Transport of other substances

93 Blood clotting

93 Serum and plasma

93 Anticoagulants

93 Haemolysis

94 Blood groups

94 Blood volume

94 Summary

95 Test Yourself

95 Websites

96 Answers


The Heart 96 Objectives

97 The heart

97 Valves

98 The heartbeat

98 Cardiac muscle

99 Control of the heartbeat

99 The coronary vessels


Blood circulation

Objectives

102 Blood circulation

103 Arteries

103 The pulse

103 Capillaries

104 The formation of tissue fluid and lymph

104 Veins

105 Regulation of blood flow

105 Oedema and fluid loss

105 The spleen

106 Important blood vessels

106 Blood pressure

107 Summary

107 Test yourself

108 Websites

108 Answers

Chapter 9 Respiratory System[edit]

109 Objectives

109 Respiratory system

110 Diffusion and transportation of oxygen

111 Diffusion and transportation of carbon dioxide

111 The air passages

111 The lungs and pleural cavities

112 Collapsed lung

112 Breathing

112 Inspiration

112 Expiration

113 Lung volumes

113 Composition of air

113 The acidity of the blood and breathing

114 Breathing in birds

114 Summary

114 Test yourself

115 Websites

116 Answers

Chapter 10 Lymphatic System[edit]

117 Objectives

117 Lymph and the lymphatic system

119 Other organs of the lymphatic system

119 Summary

120 Test yourself

121 Websites

121 Answers

Chapter 11 The Gut and Digestion[edit]

122 Objectives

122 The gut and digestion

122 Herbivores

122 Carnivores

122 mnivores

122 Treatment of food

124 The gut

125 Mouth

125 Teeth

126 Types of teeth

126 Dental formula

127 Oesophagus

128 Stomach

128 Small intestine

129 The rumen

129 Large intestine

130 Functional caecum

130 Gut of birds

131 Digestion

131 The liver

133 Summary

134 Test yourself

134 Websites

135 Answers

Chapter 12 Urinary system[edit]

137 Objectives

137 Haemostasis

138 Water in the body

138 Maintaining water balance

139 Excretion

139 The kidneys and urinary system

140 Kidney tubules or nephrons

140 Processes occurring in the nephron

141 The production of concentrated urine

142 Diabetes and the kidney

143 Other functions of the kidney

143 Normal urine

143 Abnormal ingredients of urine

144 Excretion in birds

144 Summary

144 Test yourself

146 Websites

146 Answers

Chapter 13 Reproductive System[edit]

148 Objectives

148 Reproductive system

149 Fertilisation

149 Sexual reproduction mammals

149 The male reproductive organs

150 The testes

151 Semen

151 Accessory glands

151 The penis

151 Sperm

152 The female reproductive organs

153 Ovaries

153 The ovarian cycle

153 The ovum

154 The oestrous cycle

154 Signs of oestrous or heat

155 Breeding seasons or breeding cycles

155 Fertilisation

156 Development of the morula and blastocyst

156 Implantation

156 Pregnancy

157 Hormones during pregnancy

157 Pregnancy testing

157 Gestation period

158 Signs of imminent birth

158 Labour

158 Adaptations of the foetus

158 Milk production

159 Summary

160 Test Yourself

161 Websites

162 Answers

Chapter 14 Nervous System[edit]

164 Objectives

165 Coordination

165 The nervous system

165 The neuron

166 Connections between neurons

167 Reflexes

167 Conditioned reflexes

167 Parts of the nervous system

168 The central nervous system

168 The brain

169 The forebrain

170 The cerebellum

170 The spinal cord

170 The peripheral nervous system

171 Spinal nerves

171 The autonomic nervous system

172 Summary

173 Test Yourself

174 Websites

174 Answers

Chapter 15 The Senses[edit]

176 Objectives

176 The sense organs

177 Touch and pressure

177 Pain

177 Temperature

177 Awareness of limb position

177 Smell

178 Taste

178 Sight

179 The structure of the eye

180 How the eye sees

181 Colour vision in animals

181 Binocular vision

182 Hearing

183 How the ear hears

183 Balance

184 Summary

185 Test Yourself

185 Websites

186 Answers

Chapter 16 Endocrine System[edit]

188 Objectives

188 The endocrine system

189 Endocrine organs and hormones

189 The pituitary gland and hypothalamus

190 The pineal gland

190 The thyroid gland

191 The parathyroid gland

191 The adrenal gland

192 The pancreas

192 The ovaries

192 The testes

192 Summary

194 Test Yourself

194 Websites

194 Answers



Homeostasis and Feedback Control

194 Summary of homeostatic mechanisms

194 Temperature control

194 Water balance

195 Maintenance of blood volume after blood loss

196 Acid/base balance

197 Summary

Glossary[edit]