Ada Programming/Expressions

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Expressions[edit]

An expression is a formula that defines the computation or retrieval of a value. In this International Standard, the term ``expression refers to a construct of the syntactic category expression or of any of the other five syntactic categories defined below.

Syntax[edit]

  expression ::=
    relation {and relation}  | relation {and then relation}
  | relation {or relation}  | relation {or else relation}
  | relation {xor relation}
  relation ::=
    simple_expression [relational_operator simple_expression]
  | simple_expression [not] in range
  | simple_expression [not] in subtype_mark
  simple_expression ::= [unary_adding_operator] term {binary_adding_operator term}
  term ::= factor {multiplying_operator factor}
  factor ::= primary [** primary] | abs primary | not primary
  primary ::=
    numeric_literal | null | string_literal | aggregate
  | name | qualified_expression | allocator | (expression)

Name Resolution Rules[edit]

A name used as a primary shall resolve to denote an object or a value.

Static Semantics[edit]

Each expression has a type; it specifies the computation or retrieval of a value of that type.

Dynamic Semantics[edit]

The value of a primary that is a name denoting an object is the value of the object.

Implementation Permissions[edit]

For the evaluation of a primary that is a name denoting an object of an unconstrained numeric subtype, if the value of the object is outside the base range of its type, the implementation may either raise Constraint_Error or return the value of the object.

Examples[edit]

Examples of primaries[edit]

  4.0                --  real literal
  Pi                 --  named number
  (1 .. 10 => 0)     --  array aggregate
  Sum                --  variable
  Integer'Last       --  attribute
  Sine(X)            --  function call
  Color'(Blue)       --  qualified expression
  Real(M*N)          --  conversion
  (Line_Count + 10)  --  parenthesized expression 

Examples of expressions[edit]

  Volume                      -- primary.
  not Destroyed               -- factor.
  2*Line_Count                -- term.
  -4.0                        -- simple expression.
  -4.0 + A                    -- simple expression.
  B**2 - 4.0*A*C              -- simple expression.
  Password(1 .. 3) = "Bwv"    -- relation.
  Count in Small_Int          -- relation.
  Count not in Small_Int      -- relation.
  Index = 0 or Item_Hit       -- expression.
  (Cold and Sunny) or Warm    -- expression (parentheses are required).
  A**(B**C)                   -- expression (parentheses are required).