AP Biology/Vocabulary

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Chapter 1[edit]

Introduction: Themes in The Study of Life

No vocabulary for this chapter.

Chapter 2[edit]

The Chemical Context of Life

  • Matter: Substance that has mass and occupies space
  • Element: Any of the more than 100 known substances (of which 92 occur naturally) that cannot be separated into simpler substances and that singly or in combination constitute all matter.
  • Compound: A substance formed by chemical union of two or more elements or ingredients in definite proportion by weight.
  • Trace Elements: Elements essential for growth, but required only in minute amounts.
  • Atom: The smallest component of an element having the chemical properties of the element.
  • Neutrons: A subatomic particle with no net charge. Neutrons are found in the nucleus of an atom.
  • Protons: Positive charge of an atom located in the nucleus.
  • Electrons: Negatively charged sub-atomic particles that orbit the atomic nucleus. The mass of electrons in orbit (of an atom) forms the electron shell or electron cloud of the atom.
  • Atomic Nucleus: The positively charged "core" of an atom, which contains protons and neutrons.
  • Dalton:
  • Atomic Number: Number indicating the number of protons in any given atom of an element. Each element has a unique atomic number.
  • Mass Number: Sum of the protons and neutrons in any given atom of an element.
  • Atomic Weight:
  • Isotopes: Variations of an element with the same atomic number but different numbers of neutrons.
  • Radioactive Isotopes:
  • Energy: The ability to do work, or the work required to start or carry out a reaction or process.
  • Potential Energy: The possibility (potential) of an object or substance to do work.
  • Energy Levels:The energy characteristic of a stationary state of a physical system, especially a quantum mechanical system.
  • Electron Shells:
  • Orbital:
  • Valence Electrons:An electron in an outer shell of an atom that can participate in forming chemical bonds with other atoms.
  • Valence shell:
  • Chemical bonds: Special linkages between two or more molecules or compounds.
  • Covalent Bond: Chemical bonding in which two atoms "share" one or more electrons.
  • Molecule:
  • Structural Formula:
  • Molecular Formula:
  • Double Covalent Bond:
  • Valence:
  • Nonpolar bond:
  • Polar Covalent Bond:
  • Electronegativity:
  • Nonpolar Covalent Bond:
  • Polar Covalent Bond:
  • Ion: A charged particle.
  • Cation:a positively charged ion. Happens due to the loss of electrons.
  • Anion:a negatively charged ion. Happens due to te gain of electrons.
  • Ionic Bond:A Chemical bond formed between a positively charged ion and a negatively charged ion.
  • Hydrogen Bond: Chemical bonding in which two molecules are linked together by one or more hydrogen atoms.
  • Van Der Waals Interactions:
  • Chemical Reactions:
  • Reactants: Substances that interact with one another or with an external source in a reaction.
  • Products: Substances produced from the interactions stated above in a reaction.
  • Chemical Equilibrium: State in which the quantity of reactants is equivalent to the quantity of products. Example: H2 + O2 --> H2O

Chapter 3[edit]

Water and The Fitness of The Environment

  • Polar Molecules:
  • Cohesion:
  • Adhesion:
  • Surface Tension:
  • Kinetic Energy:
  • Heat:
  • Temperature: The measure of heat in a substance.
  • Celsius Scale:
  • Calorie (cal):
  • Kilocalorie (kcal):
  • Joule (J):
  • Specific Heat:
  • Heat of Vaporization:
  • Evaporative Cooling:
  • Solution:
  • Solvent: Substance in which the solute (below) is dissolved.
  • Solute: Substance that dissolves or will dissolve in a solution.
  • Aqueous Solution:
  • Hydrophilic:
  • Hydrophobic:
  • Mole (mol):
  • Molecular Weight:
  • Molarity:
  • Hydrogen Ion:
  • Hydroxide ion (OH-):
  • Acid:
  • Base:
  • pH Scale:
  • Buffers:
  • Acid Precipitation:

Chapter 4[edit]

Carbon and the Molecular Diversity of Life

  • Organic Chemistry: The study of substances which have carbon-hydrogen bonds.
  • Hydrocarbons:
  • Isomers:
  • Structural Isomers:
  • Geometic Isomers:
  • Enantiomers:
  • Functional Groups:
  • Hydroxyl Group:
  • Alcohols:
  • Carbonyl Group:
  • Aldehyde:
  • Ketone:
  • Carboxyl Group:
  • Carboxylic Acids:
  • Amino group:
  • Amines:
  • Sulfhydryl Group:
  • Thiols:
  • Phosphate Groups:

Chapter 5[edit]

The Structure and Function of Macromolecules

  • Macromolecule:
  • Polymer:
  • Monomers:
  • Condensation Reaction:
  • Dehydration Reaction:
  • Hydrolysis:
  • Carbohydrates:
  • Monosaccharides:
  • Disaccharide:
  • Glycosidic Linkage:A covalent bond between two glycogin molecules.
  • Starch:
  • Glycogen:
  • Cellulose:
  • Chitin:
  • Lipids:A combination of a glyceral and 3 fatty acids. Hydrophobic.
  • Fat:
  • Fatty Acid:
  • Triacylglycerol:
  • Saturated Fatty Acid:
  • Unsaturated Fatty Acid:
  • Phospholipids:
  • Steroids:
  • Cholesterol:
  • Proteins:
  • Conformation:
  • Polypeptides:
  • Amino Acids:
  • Peptide Bond:
  • Primary Structure:
  • Secondary Structure:
  • Alpha Helix:
  • Pleated Sheet:
  • Tertiary Structure:
  • Hydrophobic Interaction:
  • Disulfide Bridges:
  • Quaternary Structure:
  • Denaturation:
  • Chaperone Proteins:
  • Gene:
  • Nucleic Acids:
  • Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA):
  • Ribonucleic Acid (RNA):
  • Nucleotides:
  • Pyridmidine:
  • Purines:
  • Ribose:
  • Deoxyribose:
  • Polynucleotide:
  • Double Helix:

Chapter 6[edit]

An Introduction to Metabolism

  • Metabolism:
  • Catabolic Pathways:
  • Anabolic Pathways:
  • Bioenergetics:
  • Kinetic Energy:
  • potential Energy:
  • Thermodynamics:
  • First Law of Thermodynamics:
  • Second Law of Thermodynamics:
  • Gibbs Free Energy:
  • Exergonic Reaction:
  • Endergonic Reaction:
  • Metabolic Disequilibrium:
  • Energy Coupling:
  • ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate):
  • Phosphorylated Intermediate:
  • Enzymes:
  • Catalyst:
  • Activation Energy (energy of activation):
  • Substrate:
  • Active Site:
  • Induced Fit:
  • Cofactors:
  • Coenzymes:
  • Competitive Inhibitors:
  • Noncompetitive Inhibitors:
  • Allosteric Site:
  • Feedback Inhibition:
  • Cooperativity:

Chapter 7[edit]

A Tour of the Cell

  • Light Microscopes (LMs):
  • Resolving power:
  • Organelles:
  • Electron Microscope(EM):
  • Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM):
  • Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM):
  • Cell Fraction:
  • Ultracentrifuges:
  • Prokaryotic Cell:
  • Nucleoid:
  • Cytoplasm:
  • Cytosol:
  • Plasma Membrane:
  • Nucleus:
  • Nuclear lamina:
  • Chromatin:
  • Chromosomes:
  • Nucleolus:
  • Ribosomes:
  • Endomembrane System:
  • Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER):
  • Smooth ER:
  • Rough ER:
  • Glycoproteins:
  • Transport Vesicles:
  • Golgi Apparatus:
  • Lysosome:
  • Phagocytosis:
  • Food Vacuoles:
  • Contractile Vacuoles:
  • Central Vacuoles:
  • Tonoplast:
  • Mitochondria:
  • Chloroplasts:
  • Cristae:
  • Mitochondrial Matrix:
  • Plastids:
  • Thylakoids:
  • Grana:
  • Stroma:
  • Peroxisome:
  • Cytoskeleton:
  • Microtubules:
  • Microfilaments:
  • Intermediate Filaments:
  • Centrosomes and Centrioles:
  • Centrosome:
  • Centrioles:
  • Cilia:
  • Flagella:
  • Basal Body:
  • Dynein:
  • Actin:
  • Myosin:
  • Pseudopodia:
  • Cytoplasmic Streaming:
  • Primary Cell Wall:
  • Middle Lamella:
  • Secondary Cell Wall:
  • Extracellular Matrix (ECM):
  • Collagen:
  • Proteoglycans:
  • Fibronectins:
  • Integrins:
  • Plasmodesmata:
  • Plasmodesma:
  • Tight Junctions:
  • Desmosomes:
  • Gap Junctions: