A-level Geography/AS OCR Geography/Population, patterns, process and change

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Factors affecting birth rate[edit]

  • Pro-natalist policies and Anti-natalist policies from government
  • Existing age-sex structure
  • Social and religious beliefs - especially relation to contraception
  • Female literacy levels
  • Economic prosperity (when the economy is doing well families can afford to have more children).
  • Poverty levels – children can be seen as a economic resource in developing countries as they can earn money.
  • Infant Mortality Rate – a family may have more children a countries IMR if high as it is likely some of those children will die.

Factors affecting a countries death rate[edit]

  • Nutrition levels
  • Standards of diet and housing
  • Access to clean drinking water
  • Hygiene levels
  • Levels of infectious diseases


Limitations of the Demographic Transition Model[edit]

  • When the model was put forward there was a lack of available data in Europe
  • Only based on Europe – So will it apply to the developing world?
  • Does not show the causes of changes in birth rates and death rates
  • Only a general model – why not apply to specific places. While it can be used to predict population change it may not be completely accurate

Types of population pyramid[edit]

While all countries' population pyramids differ, three types have been identified by the fertility and mortality rates of a country.

Stationary pyramid – A population pyramid showing an unchanging pattern of fertility and mortality.

Progressive pyramid – A Pyramid with a high birth rate and a high death rate.

Regressive pyramid – A declining birth rate and a low mortality rate.