A-level Computing/CIE/Computer systems, communications and software/Data: its representation, structure and management

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Data types
(a) explain the use of codes to represent a character set (e.g. ASCII and Unicode)
(b) explain the representation of different data types: integer, Boolean, date/time, currency and character
(c) express positive integers in binary form
(i) select appropriate data types for a given problem and explain the advantages and disadvantages of alternative choices
Data structures
(d) understand the structure of arrays (one- and two-dimensional), including initialising arrays, reading data into arrays and performing a simple serial search on an array
(e) describe the LIFO and FIFO features of stacks and queues
(f) explain how data is stored in files in the form of fixed-length records comprising items in fields
(i) select appropriate data structures for a given problem and explain the advantages and disadvantages of alternative choices
Data management
(g) define and explain the difference between serial, sequential, indexed sequential and random access

to data, using examples and stating their comparative advantages and disadvantages

(h) describe how serial, sequential and random organisation of files may be implemented using indexes

and hashing as appropriate

(j) explain the procedures involved in backing up data and archiving, including the difference between data that is backed up and data that is archived